close-up photo of soil after tilling

Knowing the pH and nutrient content of your soil is important to successful growing.

Soil Samples

***CCE Frankling is not currently doing soil tests ***

***Contact Franklin County Soil and Water for a soil test***


Why Test Soil?

A soil test will tell you what nutrients are in your soil and what you may need to add (in the form of fertilizer) for successful crop growth. Plants need nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (macronutrients) as will as micronutrients to grow. Deficiency or excess of these elements will impact the health and productivity of plants. In addition, the pH (acid/alkaline level) of your soil has an impact upon how much of your soil's nutrients your plants will be able to use.

pH Testing

A pH test measures the acid/alkaline level of your soil. In the pH scale, 7.0 is considered neutral; lower numbers indicate acid soil, while higher numbers indicate that the soil is alkaline. Most plants prefer a pH of 6.8. pH levels influence nutrient availability, with most nutrients being available to plants when the pH is in this range (6.8-7.0). If a soil is too alkaline or too acid, certain nutrients may be limited. To change soil pH to the desirable range, you will either add lime if the soil is too acid or sulfur if the soil is too alkaline. With your pH test result, the amount of lime or sulfur to add can be determined if any.

1. When should soil be sampled?

Soil samples can be taken at any time during the year; however, avoid extremely wet soil conditions unless absolutely necessary.

2. How often should I have my soil tested?
For most crops, every 2 to 3 years. Soil under intensive cultivation may require annual testing. Sampling from any given area should be done at about the same time as in previous years.

3. What tool shall I use for sampling?
A soil probe or auger is best; if not available, use a garden spade or shovel.
For cultivated crops and gardens, samples are taken to the tillage depth (6-10")
For no till or minimum till, take one sample at 0 - 1" and another at a 1 - 6" depth.

4. What is the proper sampling depth?
For cultivated crops and gardens
, sample at 0 - 1" and another at 1 - 6" depth.
For lawns and pastures
, a sample from the upper 6" is satisfactory; remove plant residue.
For tree and fruit crops, 2 samples should be submitted, one taken at 0 - 8" depth, the other at 8 - 16" (subsoil layer).

5. How do I go about collecting the sample?
With a shovel, dig a hole to the sampling depth. Cut a ½" slice from the face of the hole and trim the sides so you have a vertical slice of soil.

6. How many sub-samples should I collect from each area?
Repeat the sampling process in about 10 - 15 locations throughout the garden or field. Mix the sub-samples in a plastic bucket to obtain a representative composite sample. Avoid sampling in unusual areas if the objective is to estimate average fertility levels over the entire area.

7. What if I have an area of poor crop growth?

If you have a trouble spot, a separate sample taken from this area may be necessary.

8. Should the sample be dry?
Do not bring in wet samples. If it is necessary to sample wet soil, spread the sample on a sheet of newspaper and allow it to dry at room temperature.

9. How much soil is needed for each composite sample?
About two cups are required.

10. Where do I bring samples?

CCE Franklin is not currently doing soil testing. 

Please contact Franklin County Soil and Water Conservation District

174 Finney Blvd, Malone, NY 12953  


You can also send samples to Cooperative Extension Education Center, 615 Willow Avenue, Ithaca, NY between 8:30 am and 4:30 pm on weekdays. Testing for pH alone is done on-site at the Education Center; nutrient and specialized tests are sent out to an area laboratory. For more details on available tests, and to download the forms required for each, please visit our page on "Soil Testing Services".

11. What information needs to accompany the samples?
For cultivated crops

Soil name and map symbol from soil survey (available at the Cooperative Extension Education Center)
Tillage depth
Past crops
Future crops to be grown
Cover crops
Manure rates, if applied

For gardens, lawns, trees:

Site characteristics
Crop to be grown
Age of crop
Fertilizer used
Manure rates applied

12. How long will it take to get test results? 

pH tests are conducted at the Cooperative Extension Education Center and take from 1 - 3 days.Complete nutrient teststake about 1 - 2 weeks. Results are mailed from the lab directly to you, and a copy also is sent to our office.

13. What if I have questions about the results?
Call the contact listed below.

14. How much does the test cost?

pH test (for up to 3 samples) - $2.00
pH testing kits - $10.00 normal range; $8 expanded range (from 4.0 to 8.6)
Standard nutrient test - $12.00 per sample
Payable when sample is submitted to the Cooperative Extension Center.


Justin Tucker
Agriculture Program Educator

Last updated April 4, 2024